Chemicals Damage Glucose Metabolism of Fat Cells
Fat cells must metabolize glucose normally, otherwise their fat metabolizing duties are handicapped. Chemicals get in the way.
Study Title:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin mechanism of action to reduce lipoprotein lipase activity in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is important in the process of triglyceride storage in adipose tissue. Depression of LPL activity in adipose tissue is associated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced wasting syndrome and may have a role in the associated serum hyperlipidemia produced by TCDD. The 3T3-L1 cell line was used as an in vitro model, independent of hormonal, nutritional, or other interfering factors associated with in vivo studies, in order to systematically examine the mechanism of action of TCDD. TCDD produced a statistically significant (P < 0.05) time- and dose-dependent decrease in LPL activity. Results of experiments with Ah-receptor blockers and structure activity studies with different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin congeners were consistent with reduction of LPL activity being mediated by the Ah receptor. Culturing of 3T3-L1 cells without glucose or with cytochalasin B, a blocker of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), was effective in reducing LPL activity (P < 0.05). TCDD did not further reduce LPL activity in cytochalasin B pretreated 3T3-L1 cells or in 3T3-L1 cells cultured in glucose-free media. Dexamethasone pretreatment, which is known to increase GLUT expression in 3T3-L1 cells, prevented the reduction of LPL activity by TCDD. Protein tyrosine kinase activities, assayed using gamma-32P-ATP and RR-SRC, a src specific peptide substrate, were significantly increased (P < 0.05) over control levels by both TCDD and glucose deprivation. Furthermore, results of experiments treating 3T3-L1 cells with either insulin, EGF, 8-Br-cAMP, TPA, or genistein, alone or in combination with TCDD, were generally consistent with the hypothesis that lowered intracellular glucose and altered cellular kinase activities may be involved in reduction of LPL activities by TCDD. Further work is needed to confirm and better understand the role protein phosphorylation plays in TCDD-mediated alteration of glucose disposition and LPL activity. In summary, TCDD reduced LPL activity in 3T3-L1 cells as seen in vivo. Manipulation of glucose transport through a number of experimental approaches produced changes in 3T3-L1 LPL activity consistent with results of previous investigators showing glucose to be a positive regulator of LPL activity and consistent with our hypothesis that TCDD-mediated reduction of glucose transport is an important factor in the down regulation of LPL activity by TCDD.
Olsen H, Enan E, Matsumura F. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin mechanism of action to reduce lipoprotein lipase activity in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 1998 April 12(1):29-39.
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