Low Adiponectin Links Blood Sugar Problems and Heart Disease

Wednesday, April 03, 2013
By: Byron J. Richards,
Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist
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Your body uses the same hormone for multiple purposes, and adiponectin is a case in point. Low adiponectin levels are the major cause of insulin resistance in your liver that results in type 2 diabetes. In your circulatory system and your heart in particular, adiponectin is a primary anti-inflammatory via its ability to inhibit inappropriate macrophage inflammatory signaling.

Adiponectin is a hormone, like leptin, that starts out in your white adipose tissue. A primary reason for low adiponectin is inappropriately high levels of leptin (leptin resistance). This typically occurs with weight gain.  However, a person can be normal weight or underweight, have low adiponectin and thus be at risk for becoming type 2 diabetic. This is due to unfit white adipose tissue that does not make adequate adiponectin, malnutrition, and/or general inflammation that depletes adiponectin.

Your heart contains a normal amount of fat tissue within it called epicardial fat.  It is a vital component of your heart’s energy producing and regulating system.  As fat tissue it is responsive to adiponectin.  A study shows that when circulatory adiponectin levels run low1 then the macrophages within epicardial fat become hyperactive and produce large amounts of inflammatory compounds (IL6 and TNFa), which in turn cause heart wear and tear, heart swelling (hypertrophy), and thereby increases the risk for eventual heart failure.

Adiponectin levels are enhanced by following the Five Rules of the Leptin Diet. As excessively high levels of leptin are lowered, then adiponectin levels tend to rise. This means that if you are overweight, simply getting in a steady weight loss mode will help restore adiponectin, which will get better over time as more weight is lost in a healthy way. Nutrients shown to help boost adiponectin levels include pantethine2, DHA3, quercetin4, magnesium5, niacin6, green tea7, resveratrol8, grape seed extract9, banaba leaf10, and mangosteen11

 


Referenced Studies:
  1. ^ Adiponectin, Inflammation, Epicardial Fat, Heart Disease  Cardiovascular Diabetology   Yuan Zhou, Yutao Wei, Lei Wang, Xianguo Wang, Xinling Du, Zongquan Sun, Nianguo Dong and Xinzhong Chen. 
  2. ^ Pantethine Boosts Adiponectin  Hepatol Res.   Tokushige K, Hashimoto E, Yatsuji S, Taniai M, Shiratori K.
  3. ^ DHA Boosts Adiponectin in Overweight Insulin-Resistant Women  Int J Obes (Lond).  Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SA.
  4. ^ Quercetin Boosts Adiponectin  Eur J Pharm Sci.   Wein S, Behm N, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K, Wolffram S.
  5. ^ Magnesium Intake Associated with Higher Levels of Adiponectin  Journal of Nutrition  Aedin Cassidy, Paula Skidmore, Eric B. Rimm, Ailsa Welch, Sue Fairweather-Tait, Jane Skinner, Keith Burling, J. B. Richards, Tim D. Spector and Alex J. MacGregor.
  6. ^ Niacin Reduces Monocyte Adhesion, Boosts Adiponectin  Atherosclerosis.  Tavintharan S, Woon K, Pek LT, Jauhar N, Dong X, Lim SC, Sum CF.
  7. ^ Green Tea Boosts Adiponectin Production by Fat Cells  Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab  Si Young Cho, Pil Joon Park, Hyun Jung Shin, Young-Kyung Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Eui Seok Shin, Hyoung Ho Lee, Byeong Gon Lee, Joo-Hyun Baik, and Tae Ryong Lee.
  8. ^ Resveratrol Supports Adiponectin by Reducing Inflammation  Biochem Biophys Res Commun.   Ahn J, Lee H, Kim S, Ha T.
  9. ^ Grape Seed Extract Lowers Inflammation and Boosts Adiponectin  Nutr Biochem.  Terra X, Montagut G, Bustos M, Llopiz N, Ardèvol A, Bladé C, Fernández-Larrea J, Pujadas G, Salvadó J, Arola L, Blay M.
  10. ^ Banaba Leaf Helps Insulin Resistance  Biol Pharm Bull.   Yamada K, Hosokawa M, Yamada C, Watanabe R, Fujimoto S, Fujiwara H, Kunitomo M, Miura T, Kaneko T, Tsuda K, Seino Y, Inagaki N.
  11. ^ Mangosteen, Fat Cells, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation  J Nutr.  Akkarach Bumrungpert, Ruchaneekorn W. Kalpravidh, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Chia-Chi Chuang, Tiffany West, Arion Kennedy, and Michael McIntosh

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